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Syracuse University

Project Advance Chemistry

106 and 116

 General Chemistry


Professor James T. Spencer Fall 2011 and Spring 2012


Course Website at



Introduction  and Learning Goals - Whether we like it or not, we live in a dynamic chemical universe. Chemical properties and reactions influence our every action (and reaction). We rely upon chemical properties and reactions to both sustain and cultivate our lives. This course is intended to provide an introduction to understanding on a deeper level the role of chemistry in our world. This will be accomplished by providing a rational basis for interpreting and predicting chemical phenomena through examples of chemical behavior observed in nature. Thus, it is anticipated that students will be able to understand the fundamental chemical processes outlined below and to be able to apply this understanding to solve new problems in chemical behavior.


Course Description and Prerequisite Skills:  Chemistry 106 and 116 are general chemistry courses intended for students with an interest or background in science.  No prior chemistry instruction is required or assumed.  A general, basic understanding of math and algebra, including an understanding of decimals, exponents, logarithms, quadratics, and algebraic equations, is essential to success in this course (calculus is not required).  You should not be taking remedial algebra concurrently with this course.  Topics included are atomic structure, electronic structure and chemical bonding, descriptive solution chemistry, and introductions to biochemistry and biopolymer chemistry, nuclear chemistry, and many others.


In-Class Materials:   The material covered in class is illustrative rather than exhaustive.  You should read the material in the text assigned before the class.  In class, alternate ways of understanding the material will often be presented.  The examinations, however, will cover both the assigned text and in-class materials (whether or not they are specifically covered in class).


Grading and Examinations:  Final grades will be assigned based upon the weighted average of the exams given during the regularly scheduled class, special projects/events/homework (5 %), and the final examination (35 %) as follows;


                        Hourly Examinations                 =          60 %

                        Final Examination                      =          30 %

                        Homeworks                             =            10 %

                                                                                      100 %

Required Textbooks: 

            The required textbook for this course is;


                        (1)        CHEMISTRY: The Central Science (11th Edition) by T. L. Brown, E. LeMay, Jr., and B. E. Bursten, Prentice-Hall Publishing Co., Inc (1997).                                Other related books for this course which may be available and helpful are;


                        (2)        Student's Guide to CHEMISTRY, J. C. Hill, Prentice-Hall Publishing Co., Inc (1997). 


                        (3)        Chemistry in Context: Applying Chemistry to Society  (excerpted Chapters) American Chemical Society (1994). 


                        (4)        OPTIONAL: Solutions to Exercises in CHEMISTRY, R. Wilson, Prentice-Hall Publishing Co., Inc (1994). 


            The chapters assigned in the course schedule should be read prior to class.


Responsibilities:  Each student will be expected to understand all the material covered in class, in the texts, and in the problems.  You should be able to solve all the problems efficiently (which comes only through practice).  Regular study time should include a review of the lecture notes and time for working problems.  Strive not to fall behind in this class as it is very difficult, if not impossible, to catch up!



            The grade for the laboratory is entirely independent from the CHE 106/116 grade.




(1)        Students who may need special consideration due to a physical or learning disability should see the instructor as soon as possible.  No provisions will be made if notified after examinations. 


 (2)       No student will be refused admission because he or she is unable to participate in a course requirement because of his or her religious holy day requirements.  Again, you must make provisions before such absences.  According to University policy, an opportunity to make up examinations and other class work [due to religious observances] will be provided...if the instructor is notified in writing one week before the absence.


General Chemistry, CHE 106  and 116

Project Advance, Syracuse University


Course Syllabus

Fall 2011 and Spring 2012 Semesters


Syllabus on web: (PA Site)


Fall Semester Covers Chapters 1 thru 13 (excluding 12)

Spring Semester Covers Chapters 14 thru 26 (excluding 18 and 23-25)



Fall Semester

Chemistry 106


Chapter 1. Introduction: Some Basic Concepts


1.1  Matter


Chemical and Physical Properties

Chemical and Physical Changes


1.2  Elements and Compounds


            (Learn names and symbols of some common elements)


1.3  Measurement Units

            (Study Table 1.4 SI Base Units 12)

            (Study Table 1.5 Selected Prefixes Used in the SI System 12)

Length and Mass


Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin scales



Intensive and Extensive Properties

1.4  Uncertainty in Measurement

Precision and Accuracy

Significant Figures

(See rules for determining the number of significant figures in a measured quantity)

Significant Figures in Calculations

            (See rules for rounding off numbers )

1.5  Dimensional Analysis

Summary of Dimensional Analysis

Chapter 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions


2.1  The Atomic Theory

Basic Postulates of the Dalton Theory

2.2  The Discovery of Atomic Structure

Cathode Rays and Electrons


The Nuclear Atom

2.3  The Modern View of Atomic Structure

Protons, neutrons and electrons

(See Table 2.1 Comparing the proton, neutron, and electron )

Isotopes, Atomic Numbers, and Mass Numbers

2.4  The Periodic Table

(Study figure showing the division of elements into metals, metalloids, and nonmetals)

(Learn the family names for some of the groups in the periodic table)

2.5  Molecules and Ions

Molecules and Chemical Formulas

(Study figure - Common elements that exist as diatomic molecules at room temperature)

Molecular, Empirical, and Structural Formulas


(Study Figure - Charges of some common ions)

2.6  Naming Inorganic Compounds

Ionic Compounds: Cations

Ionic Compounds: Anions

(Learn the names of common ions. See Table - Common ions)


Molecular Compounds



Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations


3.1  Chemical Equations

3.2  Patterns of Chemical Reactivity

Using the Periodic Table to predict reactivity

Combustion in Air: Combustion Reactions

Combination and Decomposition Reactions

3.3  Atomic and Molecular Weights

The Atomic Mass Scale

Average Atomic Masses (mixtures of isotopes)

Formula and Molecular Weights

Percentage Composition from Formulas

3.4  The Mass Spectrometer

3.5  The Mole

Molar Mass

Interconverting Masses, Moles, and Numbers of Particles

3.6  Empirical Formulas from Analyses

Molecular Formula from Empirical Formula

Empirical formula calculation from Combustion Analyses

3.7  Quantitative Information from Balanced Equations

3.8  Limiting Reactant

Theoretical Yield



Chapter 4. Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry


4.1  Solution Composition



4.2  Electrolytes

Strong and Weak Electrolytes

4.3  Acids, Bases, and Salts



(Table - Common strong acids and bases)

Identifying Strong and Weak Electrolytes

(Guidelines for recognizing substances as strong or weak electrolytes)

Neutralization Reactions

4.4  Ionic Equations

4.5  Metathesis Reactions

(Study guidelines for determining what is the driving force for metathesis reactions to occur)

Precipitation Reactions

Solubility Rules

(Study table - Solubility rules for common ionic compounds in water)

Reactions in Which H2O or a Weak Electrolyte Forms

Reactions in Which a Gas Forms

4.6  Reactions of Metals

Oxidation and Reduction

Oxidation of Metals by Acids and Salts

The Activity Series

(Table - Activity series of metals)

4.7  Solution Stoichiometry



Chapter 5. Energy Relationships in Chemistry: Thermochemistry


5.1  The Nature of Energy

Kinetic and Potential Energy

Energy Units

Joule and Calorie

Systems and Surroundings

5.2  The First Law of Thermodynamics

Internal Energy

Relating E to Heat and Work

State Functions

5.3  Heat and Enthalpy Changes

5.4  Enthalpies of Reaction

(Three important characteristics of enthalpy)

5.5  Calorimetry

Heat Capacity and Specific Heat

Constant-Pressure Calorimetry

Constant-Volume Calorimetry (Bomb Calorimetry)

5.6  Hess's Law

5.7  Enthalpies of Formation

Using Heats of Formation to Calculate Heats of Reaction

(Study table - Specific heats of selected substances)

5.8  Foods and Fuels



Other Energy Sources



Chapter 6. Electron Structures of Atoms


6.1  The Wave Nature of Light

 (Figure - The electromagnetic spectrum)

 (Table - Common wavelength units for electromagnetic radiation)

6.2  Quantum Effects and Photons

The Photoelectric Effect

6.3  Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom

Line Spectra

Bohr's Model

6.4  The Dual Nature of the Electron

The Uncertainty Principle

6.5  Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals

Orbitals and Quantum Numbers

 (Letters used to label atomic orbitals)

 (Table- Relationships among values of n, l, and ml)

6.6  Representations of Orbitals

The s Orbitals

The p Orbitals

The d and f Orbitals

 (Figures showing contour representations of orbitals)

6.7  Orbitals in Many-Electron Atoms

Effective Nuclear Charge

Energies of Orbitals

6.8  Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

6.9  Electron Configurations

Writing Electron Configurations of the Elements

6.10  Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

(Table - Electron configuration of the elements)



Chapter 7. Periodic Properties of the Elements


7.1  Development of the Periodic Table

7.2  Electron Shells in Atoms

7.3  Sizes of Atoms

7.4  Ionization Energy

Periodic Trends in Ionization Energies

7.5  Electron Affinities

7.6  Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids




Trends in Metallic and Nonmetallic Character

 (See Figure - Trends in metallic and nonmetallic character.)

 (Also study guidelines on predicting metallic character for a given element in the periodic table)

7.7  Group Trends: The Active Metals

Group 1A: The Alkali Metals

Group 2A: The Alkaline Earth Metals

7.8  Group Trends: Selected Nonmetals


Group 6A: The Oxygen Family

Group 7A: The Halogens

Group 8A: The Noble Gases



Chapter 8. Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding


8.1  Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule

 (Table - Electron-dot symbols)

8.2  Ionic Bonding

Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation

Electron Configurations of Ions

Polyatomic Ions

8.3  Sizes of Ions

 (Figure - Relative sizes of atoms and ions)

8.4  Covalent Bonding

Multiple Bonds

8.5  Bond Polarity and Electronegativity


 (Study figure - Electronegativities of the elements)

Electronegativity and Bond Polarity

8.6  Drawing Lewis Structures

 (Learn rules for writing Lewis structures)

8.7  Resonance Structures

8.8  Exceptions to the Octet Rule

Odd Number of Electrons

Less Than an Octet

More Than an Octet

8.9  Strengths of Covalent Bonds

 (Study table Average bond energies)

Bond Energies and the Enthalpy of Reactions

Bond Strength and Bond Length

8.10  Oxidation Numbers

 (Rules for determining oxidation numbers)

Oxidation Numbers and Nomenclature


Chapter 9. Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories


9.1 Molecular Geometries

The Valence-Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model

AXE Notation (handout)

Predicting Molecular Geometries

(Study Table - Electron-pair geometries as a function of the number of electron pairs)

(Steps used to predict molecular geometries using the VSEPR model)

Four or Fewer Valence-Shell Electron Pairs Around a Central Atom 290

(Table - Electron-pair geometries for molecules with two, three, and four electron pairs about the central atom)

The Effect of Nonbonding Electrons and Multiple Bonds on Bond Angles

Geometries of Molecules with Expanded Valence Shells

(Table - Electron-pair geometries for molecules with five and six electron pairs about the central atom)

Molecules with No Single Central Atom

9.2 Polarity of Molecules

The Polarity of Polyatomic Molecules

9.3 Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap

9.4 Hybrid Orbitals

sp Hybrid Orbitals

(Figure - Formation of sp hybrid orbitals)

sp2 and sp3 Hybrid Orbitals

(Figure - Formation of sp2 hybrid orbitals)

(Figure - Formation of sp3 hybrid orbitals)

Hybridization Involving d Orbitals

9.5 Multiple Bonds

Delocalized Bonding

(Figure - Formation of delocalized bonds)

General conclusions on hybrid orbitals in determining molecular structure

9.6 Molecular Orbitals

The Hydrogen Molecule

Bond Order

(Definition of bond order)

9.7 Second-Period Diatomic Molecules

(Rules for assigning electrons to molecular orbitals)

Molecular Orbitals for Li2 and Be2

Molecular Orbitals from 2p Atomic Orbitals

Electron Configurations for B2 through F2

(Figure General energy-level diagram for molecular orbitals of second-row diatomic molecules)

Electron Configurations and Molecular Properties



Chapter 10. Gases


10.1  Characteristics of Gases

10.2  Pressure

Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer

Pressure of Enclosed Gases and Manometers

10.3  The Gas Laws

Pressure-Volume Relationship: Boyle's Law

Temperature-Volume Relationship: Charles Law

Quantity-Volume Relationship: Avogadro's Law

10.4  The Ideal-Gas Equation

(Table - Numerical values of the gas constant, R)

Relationship Between the Ideal-Gas Equation and the Gas Laws

10.5  Molar Mass and Gas Densities

10.6  Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures

Partial Pressures and Mole Fractions

10.7  Volumes of Gases in Chemical Reactions

Collecting Gases Over Water (Correcting for the vapor pressure of water)

10.8  Kinetic-Molecular Theory

Basic assumptions of Kinetic-Molecular Theory

Application to the Gas Laws

10.9  Molecular Effusion and Diffusion

Graham's Law of Effusion

Diffusion and Mean Free Path

10.10  Deviations from Ideal Behavior

(Figure - PV/RT versus pressure)

The van der Waals Equation



Chapter 11. Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids


11.1  The Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids

(Table - Some characteristic properties of the states of matter)

11.2  Intermolecular Forces

Ion-Dipole Forces

Dipole-Dipole Forces

London Dispersion Forces

Hydrogen Bonding

(Figure - Boiling points of the group 4A and 6A hydrides as a function of molecular weight )

11.3  Properties of Liquids: Viscosity and Surface Tension

11.4  Changes of State

Heating Curves

(Figure - Enthalpy of water between -25C and 125C )

Critical Temperature and Pressure

11.5  Vapor Pressure

Explaining Vapor Pressure on the Molecular Level

Volatility, Vapor Pressure, and Temperature

Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point

11.6  Phase Diagrams

(Figure - Phase diagram for a system exhibiting gas, liquid, and solid phases)

The Phase Diagrams of H2O and CO2

(Figure 11.24 Phase diagram of (a) H2O and (b) CO2)

11.7  Structures of Solids

Unit Cells

The Crystal Structure of Sodium Chloride

Close Packing of Spheres

11.8  Bonding in Solids

Molecular Solids

Covalent-Network Solids

Ionic Solids

Metallic Solids



Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions


13.1  The Solution Process

(Table - Examples of solutions)

Energy Changes and Solution Formation

Solution Formation, Spontaneity, and Disorder

13.2  Ways of Expressing Concentration

Molarity, Mole Fraction, and Molality

13.3  Saturated Solutions and Solubility

13.4  Factors Affecting Solubility

Solute-Solvent Interactions

Pressure Effects

Temperature Effects

13.5  Colligative Properties

Vapor Pressure Lowering

Raoult's Law

Boiling-Point Elevation

Freezing-Point Depression

 (Table - Molal boiling-point-elevation and freezing-point-depression constants)


Determination of Molar Mass

13.6  Colloids

Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Colloids

Removal of Colloidal Particles





Spring Semester

Chemistry 116




Chapter 14. Chemical Kinetics


14.1  Reaction Rates

Concepts of Instantaneous and Average Rates (Figure and text material)

Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry

14.2  The Dependence of Rate on Concentration

Rate Constant Units

Using Initial Rates to Determine Rate Laws

14.3  Change of Concentration with Time

First-Order Reactions


Second-Order Reactions

14.4  Temperature and Rate

The Collision Model

Activation Energy

The Arrhenius Equation

14.5  Reaction Mechanisms

Elementary Processes

Rate Laws of Elementary Processes

(Study table - Elementary steps and their rate laws)

Rate Laws of Multistep Mechanisms

Mechanisms with an Initial Fast Step

14.6  Catalysis

Homogeneous Catalysis

Heterogeneous Catalysis

Enzyme Catalysts



Chapter 21. Nuclear Chemistry


21.1  Radioactivity

Nuclear Equations

Types of Radioactive Decay

21.2  Patterns of Nuclear Stability

Neutron-to-Proton Ratio

Radioactive Series

21.3  Nuclear Transmutations

Using Charged Particles

Using Neutrons

Transuranium Elements

21.4  Rates of Radioactive Decay

Radioactive Dating

Calculations Based on Half-Life

21.5  Detection of Radioactivity

21.6  Energy Changes in Nuclear Reactions

Nuclear Binding Energies

21.7  Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Reactors

21.8  Nuclear Fusion

21.9  Biological Effects of Radiation



Chapter 22. Chemistry of Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Carbon


22.1  Periodic Trends

22.2  Chemical Reactions

22.3  Hydrogen





22.4  Oxygen



Oxides, Peroxides and Superoxides

22.5  Nitrogen


Hydrogen Compounds

22.6  Carbon

Elemental Forms


XXX  The Noble-Gas Elements

Noble gas compounds

XXX  The Halogens


Properties and Preparation of the Halogens

Uses of the Halogens

The Hydrogen Halides

Interhalogen Compounds

Oxyacids and Oxyanions

XXX   The Group 6A Elements

General Characteristics

Oxides, Oxyacids and Oxyanions of Sulfur



Chapter 15. Chemical Equilibrium


15.1  The Concept of Equilibrium

15.2  The Equilibrium Constant

Expressing Equilibrium Constants in Pressure Units, Kp

Magnitude of Equilibrium Constants

15.3  Heterogeneous Equilibria

15.4  Calculating Equilibrium Constants

Relationship Between Kc and Kp

15.5  Applications of Equilibrium Constants

Predicting the Direction of Reactions

Calculation of Equilibrium Concentrations

15.6  Factors Affecting Equilibrium: Le Chatelier's Principle

Change in Reactant or Product Concentrations

Effect of Volume and Pressure Changes

Effect of Temperature Changes

Effect of Catalysts



Chapter 16. Acid-Base Equilibria


16.1  The Dissociation of Water

The Proton in Water

16.2  Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

Proton-Transfer Reactions

Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

Conjugate Acid-Base Strengths

16.3  The pH Scale

Measurement of pH

16.4  Strong Acids and Bases

Strong Acids

Strong Bases

16.5  Weak Acids

Calculating pH for Solutions of Weak Acids

Polyprotic Acids

16.6  Weak Bases

Types of Weak Bases

16.7  Relation Between Ka and Kb

16.8  Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions

16.9  Acid-Base Behavior and Chemical Structure

Effect of Bond Polarity and Bond Strength


Carboxylic Acids

16.10  Lewis Acids and Bases

Hydrolysis of Metal Ions



Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria


17.1 The Common-Ion Effect

17.2 Acid-Base Titrations

Strong Acid-Strong Base Titrations

Addition of a Strong Base to a Weak Acid

Titration Curves for Weak Acids or Weak Bases

Titrations of Polyprotic Acids

17.3 Buffered Solutions

Composition and Action of Buffered Solutions

Buffer Capacity and pH

Actions of Strong Acids or Bases to Buffers

17.4 Solubility Equilibria

The Solubility-Product Constant, Ksp

Solubility and Ksp

The Common-Ion Effect

17.5 Criteria for Precipitation or Dissolution

Solubility and pH

Selective Precipitation of Ions

Effect of Complex Formation on Solubility


17.6 Qualitative Analysis for Metallic Elements



Chapter 19.  Chemical Thermodynamics


19.1  Spontaneous Processes

19.2  Spontaneity, Enthalpy, and Entropy

Spontaneity and Entropy Change

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

19.3  Molecular Interpretation of Entropy

19.4  Calculation of Entropy Changes

19.5  Gibbs Free Energy

Standard Free-Energy Changes

19.6  Free Energy and Temperature

19.7  Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant



Chapter 20. Electrochemistry


20.1  Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

20.2  Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations


Balancing Equations by the Method of Half-Reactions

Balancing Equations for Reactions in Basic Solution

20.3  Voltaic Cells

20.4  Cell EMF

Standard Electrode Potentials

Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

20.5  Spontaneity of Redox Reactions

EMF and Free Energy Change

20.6  Effect of Concentration on Cell EMF

The Nernst Equation

20.8  Electrolysis

Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions

Electrolysis with Active Electrodes

20.9  Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis

Electrical Work



Chapter 26.  The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry


26.1  Alkanes

Structures of Alkanes

Structural Isomers

Nomenclature of Alkanes


Reactions of Alkanes

26.2  Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Alkenes and Alkynes

Addition Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

26.3  Hydrocarbon Derivatives



Aldehydes and Ketones

Carboxylic Acids


Amines and Amides

26.4  Introduction to Biochemistry

26.5  Proteins

Amino Acids

Polypeptides and Proteins

Protein Structure

The asymmetric carbon atom, chiral (optically active) molecules



Chapter 12.  Modern Materials


12.2  Polymers

Addition polymerization, condensation polymerization

Types of Polymers

Thermoplastic, thermosetting

Structures and Physical Properties of Polymers


12.3  Ceramics

12.4  Thin Films